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Indian Independence 1947

 Indian Independence 1947

1885 The first meeting of the Indian National Congress, Bombay
1905 The first partition of Bengal
1906 Formation of the Muslim League
1920 Mahatma Gandhi leads the Congress; Non-cooperation Movement
1922 Civil Disobedience Movement
1925 Reforms Enquiry Committee Report
1928 Simon Commission comes to India: Boycott by all parties
1929 Lord Irwin promises Dominion Status for India
1930 Civil Disobedience Movement continues; Salt Satyagraha: Gandhi’s Dandi March; First Round Table Conference
1931 Second Round Table Conference; Irwin-Gandhi Pact; Census of India
1932 Suppression of the Congress movement; Third Round Table Conference
1934 Civil Disobedience Movement called off
1935 The Government of India Act receives Royal Assent
1937 Elections held for provincial assemblies
1938
July
Gandhi-Jinnah negotiations for the settlement of the communal problem, which began in February, fail
Dec The Muslim League forms a committee of enquiry into alleged Congress persecution of Muslims
1939
3 Sep Viceroy Linlithgow announces that India is at war with Germany
18 Oct Viceroy’s Statement on War Aims and the War Effort: reiterates that goal of British policy is Dominion status for India, but that the 1935 Act is open to modification at the end of the war, in the light of Indian opinion. Offers association of Indian opinion in war effort through consultative group representing the major political parties in British India and the princes.
Oct Resignation of Congress Ministries
22 Dec Observed as ‘Deliverance Day’ from Congress rule by the Muslim League.
1940
23 Mar Lahore Resolution of the Muslim League demands for a separate state for the Muslims of India
May Churchill becomes Prime Minister in Britain
7 Aug Viceroy makes a statement on India’s constitutional development – the August Offer – and announces that more places would be open to representative Indians in an expanded Executive Council and on a new War Advisory Council
Sep Congress and League reject the August Offer
17 Oct Congress launches civil disobedience
1941
Dec Congress civil disobedience prisoners set free
1942 Subhas Chandra Bose forms the Indian National Army
11 Mar British Government announces its decision to send Sir Stafford Cripps to India
30 Mar Cripps proposals published
2 Apr Congress and League reject the Cripps proposals
8-9 Aug Congress launches ‘Quit India movement’ and is declared an unlawful organisation; Gandhi and all members of the Congress Working Committee are arrested
1943
Oct Wavell succeeds Linlithgow as Viceroy
1944
9-27 Sep Gandhi-Jinnah talks end in failure
1945 First trial of the Indian National Army men opened
7 May Germany surrenders
15 Jun Imprisoned Congress leaders released
26 Jul Labour Government comes into power in Britain
14 Aug Japan surrenders
Dec-Jan General Elections in India
1946
23 Mar-29 Jun Cabinet Mission visits India
16 May Cabinet Mission announces its constitutional scheme
6 Jun Muslim League accepts Cabinet Mission’s constitutional scheme
16 Jun Cabinet Mission presents scheme for the formation of an interim government at the centre
25 Jun Congress rejects 16 June proposals for an interim government but accepts 16 May scheme, agreeing thereby to join the proposed Constituent Assembly. Muslim League accepts the 16 June scheme and agrees to join the interim government
29 Jul Muslim League passes resolutions retracting its acceptance of the Cabinet Mission plan and calling upon Muslims to observe 16 August as ‘Direct Action Day’
16 Aug ‘Direct Action Day’
16-18 Aug The ‘Great Calcutta Killing’
2 Sept Congress forms the interim government with Nehru as the Vice-President
13 Oct Muslim League decides to join the interim government
25 Oct Interim Government reconstituted
3-6 Dec Aborted London conference of major Indian leaders
9 Dec Constituent Assembly meets without Muslim League members
1947
29 Jan Muslim League demands dissolution of Constituent Assembly.
February Communal rioting in Punjab
20 February Prime Minister Attlee announces the British intention of leaving India by June 1948, and Mountbatten to succeed as Viceroy.
23 February Jinnah declares that the Muslim League will not yield an inch in their demand for Pakistan
4-5 March Outbreak of communal disturbances in Lahore, Multan and other Pujabi towns.
12 March Gandhi begins a tour of the riot-affected areas of Bihar
18 March Prime Minister’s letter sent to Viceroy-designate on the policy and principles in accordance with which power should be transferred
24 March Mountbatten sworn in as Viceroy and governor-General
31 March Viceroy holds the first of five interviews with Gandhi
5 April Viceroy holds the first of six interviews with Jinnah
15-16 April Conference of Governors; approval for draft proposals for the transfer of power
15 April Issue of joint Gandhi-Jinna appeal for abstention from acts of violence and disorder
1 May Nehru acquaints Mountbatten with Congress Working Committee’s reactions to recent developments
18 May Mountbatten leaves for London for talks with Cabinet
28 May Cabinet India and Burma Committee: concluding meeting with Mountbatten
30 May Mountbatten arrives back in Delhi
2 June Mountbatten meets Indian leaders and gives them Partition Plan
3 June Mountbatten, Nehru, Jinnah and Baldev Singh give a broadcast on the Plan over All India Radio
4 June Mountbatten gives a Press Conference on the Plan
5-7 June Mountbatten discusses partition machinery with Indian leaders and Indian Cabinet
12 June First meeting of Partition Committee
20 June Votes in Bengal Legislative Assembly result in decision that Province should be partitioned
25 June Indian Cabinet agrees to establish States Department
4 July Indian Independence Bill is published
9 July Mountbatten advises Attlee of his decision to accept the Governor-Generalship of India
16 July Last meeting of the Interim Government
18 July Indian Independence Bill receives Royal Assent
19 July The Executive Council (Transitional Provisions) Order, reconstituting the Interim Government into two separate groups representing the two successor governments of India and Pakistan, published
11 August Jinnah elected President of the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan
14 August Pakistan Independence Celebrations in Karachi; Viceroy addresses Pakistan Consituent Assembly
14 – 15 August midnight Power transferred
15 August Jinnah sworn in as Governor-General of Pakistan; Mountbatten sworn in as Governor-General of India; Independence Day Celebrations in Delhi

 

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